You can learn more about it here.
|A jumble of proteins inside the cell, visualized in a scientific animation. Credit Harvard University, XVIVO Scientific Animation|
|Striping and tabanid activity.|
Phylogenetic tree of equid subspecies showing leg stripe intensity (inside circles) and proportion of geographic range overlap with 7 consecutive months of temperature lying between 15 and 30 C and humidity between 30 and 85% (outside circles).
Drawings by Rickesh Patel.
|Artist's rendition of Chariklo, Courtesy of ESO|
|Note: objects are not to scale. Drawing by Shutterstock / fluidworkshop|
If you wanted to study meteorological conditions before the advent of modern recording devices, what would you do? Well, if you’re like Christos Zerefos of the Academy of Athens or his colleagues, you’d look at old paintings. The researchers used paintings of sunsets made from the year 1500 to 2000 to estimate the amount of pollution in the air at those times.
First off, you may be wondering what could have produced enough pollution to blot the sky hundreds of years before the industrial revolution. The answer is volcanic eruption. Sure enough, paintings made within a few years of major eruptions have redder skies than paintings made at other times. This is because the ash and dust in the air after an eruption scatter the sunlight, shifting the ratio of red to green light.
To test how accurately a painting could be in predicting the clarity of the atmosphere, the researchers asked Panayiotis Tetsis, a colorist and landscape artist, to paint a series of sunset pictures from the island of Hydra. Unbeknownst to Tetsis, during the experiment there happened to be a Saharan dust storm blowing over Greece. You can see the results below:
|Greek landscape painter Panayiotis Tetsis created the top images on June 19 and 20, 2010, respectively. The photographs below them reflect the real sunsets on those evenings. There were more aerosols in the sky, and more red in Tetsis' painting, on June 19. |
P. Tetsis (paintings) and C. Zerefos (photos).
|Credit: Image courtesy of University of California - San Diego|
Dark areas indicate full preservation,
Light areas indicate fragmented areas,
Hatched areas are the bones affected by lesions.