- high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
- gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
- direct flow injection tandem mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS)
- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
- high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV)
- (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) techniques
Venn diagram showing the overlap of urine metabolites (compounds or cmpds) detected by NMR, GC-MS, DFI/LC-MS/MS, ICP-MS, HPLC coupled to UV detection and HPLC coupled to fluorescence detection compared to the detectable urine metabolome.
The authors offer this fun fact:
The average adult generates between 1.5–2.0 liters of urine per day, which over the course of their lifetime would be enough to fill a small backyard swimming pool (5 X 8 X 1.5 m).
Bouatra S, Aziat F, Mandal R, Guo AC, Wilson MR, Knox C, Bjorndahl TC, Krishnamurthy R, Saleem F, Liu P, Dame ZT, Poelzer J, Huynh J, Yallou FS, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bogumil R, Roehring C, & Wishart DS (2013). The human urine metabolome. PloS one, 8 (9) PMID: 24023812.