Here are the science winners.
The second name probably rings a bell. Ever hear of the Higgs Boson? Here's a hint: it's an elementary particle that was not named by Peter Higgs.
The Nobel committee's reasoning:
"For the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."
If you didn't find that clear, perhaps this will help:
Or how about this. Or this. Or maybe this.
"For the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems."
Translation: they created software programs to model complex molecular interactions.
In Physiology or Medicine:
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof
"For their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells."
There must be tight control over when molecules enter or leave a cell and where within the cell those molecules are located. We now have a better understanding of how this works.
Take a look: